Informatiemanagement - key takeways boek Module 1: Introductie tot een digitale wereld 1
Setting the stage: technology and the modern enterprise
Tech’s tectonic shift: radically changing business landscapes
In the previous decade, tech firms have created profound shifts in the way firms advertise and
individuals and organizations communicate
New technologies have fuelled globalization, redefined our concepts of software and computing,
crushed costs, fuelled data-driven decision-making, and raised privacy and security concerns
It’s your revolution
Recognize that anyone reading this book has the potential to build an impactful business.
Entrepreneurship has no minimum age requirement.
The ranks of technology revolutionaries are filled with young people, with several leading firms and
innovations launched by entrepreneurs who started while roughly the age of the average university
Several forces are accelerating and lowering the cost of entrepreneurship. These include
crowdfunding, cloud computing, app stores, 3D printing, and social media, among others.
Geek up - tech is everywhere and you’ll need it to thrive
As technology becomes cheaper and more powerful, it pervades more industries and is becoming
increasingly baked into what were once nontech functional areas.
Technology is impacting every major business discipline, including finance, accounting, marketing,
operations, human resources and the law
Tech jobs rank among the best and highest-growth positions, and tech firms rank among the best and
highest-paying firms to work for.
Information systems (IS) jobs are profoundly diverse, ranging from those that require heavy
programming skills to those that are focused on design, process, project management, privacy and
Social media, peer production and leveraging the crowd
A new generation of Internet applications is enabling consumers to participate in creating content and
services online. While the term Web 2.0 was once widely used, these efforts are now being categorized
as social media (creating, sharing, curating, and commenting on content), peer production (when
users collaboratively work to create content, products and services, which includes social media as
well as user-created services like Skype and BitTorrent), and collaborative consumption (participants
share access to products and services rather than having ownership). Shared resources can be owned
by a central service provider (e.g. Zipcar) or provided by a community that pools available resources
(e.g. Airbnb, Uber).
These efforts have grown rapidly, most with remarkably little investment in promotion. Nearly all of
these new efforts leverage network effects to add value and establish their dominance and viral
marketing to build awareness and attract users.
Many of these services often leverage the wisdom of crowds to provide insight, products, or ideas that
can be far more accurate or valuable than those provided by a smaller group of professionals.
Question-and-answer sites like Quora and Stack Overflow are both learning tools and methods to
establish one’s reputation and authority while helping the broader user community.
Microblogging is a channel for sharing and consuming short pieces of content. The category is
dominated by Twittter, although many private and public services exist.
Services aren’t limited to consumer use. Firms advertise, promote, and engage with customers over
social networks. Other tools, such as Slack, Stack Overflow and GitHub are considered essential in
many modern enterprises.
Messaging services have exploded with the advent of mobile devices. Many efforts are now preferred
to SMS and offer rich exchange of media, specialization in a media topic, public or private postings,
and public or anonymous identities
Network effects play a heading role in enabling these efforts. Many of these services also rely on ad-
supported revenue models and open source software.
Blogs provide a rapid way to distribute ideas and information from one writer to many readers
Search engines, social media sharing, and trackbacks allow a blogger’s community of readers to
spread the word on interesting posts and help distinguish and reinforce the reputations of widely read
The comments section in blogs can create a conversation to gather opinion, vet ideas, and
brainstorm. Public commentary can also apply pressure to correct inaccuracies and keep a blogger
Well-known blogs can be powerfully influential, acting as flashpoints on public opinion
Firms ignore influential bloggers at their peril, but organizations should also be cautious about how
they use and engage blogs and avoid flagrantly promotional or biased efforts
Senior executives from several industries use blogs for business purposes, including marketing,
sharing ideas, gathering feedback, press response, image shaping, and reaching consumers directly
without press filtering
Blogs are a type of owned media, but when users online share blog posts form an organization, this
constitutes a type of earned media that generates even more awareness at no additional cost
Effective blogs can improve a firm’s SEO (search engine ranking results), making the firm easier to find
and possibly pushing online visibility ahead of rivals
Wikis can be powerful tools for many-to-many content collaboration, and can be ideal for creating
resources that benefit from the input of many, such as encyclopaedia entries, meeting agendas, and
project status documents.
The greater the number of wiki users, the more likely the information contained in the wiki will be
accurate and grow in value
Wikis can be public or private
The availability of free or low-cost wiki tools can create a knowledge clearinghouse on topics, firms,
products and even individuals. Organizations can seek to harness the collective intelligence (wisdom
of crows) of online communities, and create a living knowledge repository. The openness of wikis acts
as a mechanism for promoting organizational transparency and accountability.
Electronic social networks help individuals maintain contacts, discover and engage people with
common interest, share updates and organize as groups.
Modern social networks are major messaging services, supporting private one-to-one notes, public
postings, and broadcast updates or feeds.
Social networks also raise some of the strongest privacy concerns, as status updates, past messages,
photos and other content linger, even as a user’s online behaviour and network of contacts changes.
Network effects and cultural differences result in one social network being favoured over others in a
particular culture or region.
Information spread virally via news feeds. Feeds can rapidly mobilize populations and dramatically
spread the adoption of applications. The flow of content in social networks is also difficult to control
and sometimes results in embarrassing public disclosures.
Feeds have a downside, and there have been instance where feed mismanagement has caused user
discontent, public relations problems, and the possibility of legal action.
The use of public social networks within private organizations is growing, and many organizations are
implementing their own, private, social networks. Linkedin is seen as a key recruiting, contact
maintenance, and learning tool, while corporate messaging tools like Slack are used to increase
Firms are also setting up social networks for customer engagement and mining these sites for
customer ideas, innovation, and feedback.
Twitter and the rise of microblogging
While many public and private microblogging services exist, Twitter remains by far the dominant
Unlike status updates found on services like Facebook and LinkedIn, Twitter’s default supports
assymetric communication, where someone can follow updates without first getting their approval.
This function makes Twitter a good choice for anyone cultivating a following - authors, celebrities,
organizations and brand promotors.
You don’t need to tweet to get value. Many Twitter users follow friends, firms, celebrities, and thought
leaders, quickly gaining access to trending topics.
Twitter hashtags (keywords preceded by the # character) are used to organize “tweets” on a given
topic. Users can search on hashtags, and many applications allow for tweets to be organized and
displayed by tag.
Organizations are leveraging Twitter in a variety of ways, including for real-time promotions, for time-
sensitive information, for scheduling and yield management, for customer engagement and support,
for promotion, for intelligence gathering, for idea sourcing, and as a sales channel.
Like other forms of social media, Twitter can serve as a hot house that attracts opinion and forces
organizational transparency and accountability.
Activists have leveraged the service worldwide, and it has also served as an early warning mechanism
in disasters, terror, and other events.
Twitter will surface tweets and its algorithms think you’ll be most interested in. Because of this, many
feel Twitter is more friendly and conducive for organic media sharing. Twitter also sells ad products,
including video advertisements and custom hashtag-linked emojis, to increase the reach of posts and
to recruit new followers.
Many organizations engage Twitter followers during major events, hoping to increase the likelihood
that a post is seen and spread virally. Firms should use caution as not be perceived as exploiting
tragedy or potentially sensitive events.
Ad revenue is on the rise at Twitter. Short ads served in the tough-to-ignore stream of tweets are well
suited for mobile offerings. Ad formats incorporating video and a platform for connecting advertisers
with properties outside Twitter are novel mechanisms to leverage Twitter’s strengths as conversation
platform and a data-driven targeting mechanism.
Despite strong revenue growth, Twitter has only recently become profitable, and end-user growth has
not kept pace with other social media offerings
Twitter is used to make its data available via an API, and this helped the firm grow a rich ecosystem of
Twitter-supporting products and services. But by making data available to third parties, firms may