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Maak een oefenexamen van de volgende tekst: Lecture 1: introduction
Studies showed there is a direct link between age and the prevalence of antisocial behaviour. The lecturer studied the neurobiology of children in Teylingereind. These children are not always so willing to participate in a study from the university. So how do they convince these youngsters to participate in such a heavy study?:
Rewarding them
Day out of the facility
Material benefits
Gaming
An interesting question is are dangerous people born or made? We actually dont know this. The most probable trajectory is that it must be a combination in most of the cases. A person must have a susceptibility to abnormal behaviour, but that person also would need negative environmental factors to trigger this behaviour.
Abnormal vs normal behaviour
There are three lines of pinpointing whats normal and whats abnormal. The different criteria are:
Cultural/social/ethical: a component of what is normal and abnormal. Something what is normal in the Netherlands, might be abnormal in an Asian country
Statistical model (normaalverdeling): the majority of us are located in the middle of the curve and there are some extreme cases, those are the cases that might be concerning. So the deviates from the standard are concerning and abnormal
Medical model: from the DSM. They see mental disorders like physic disorders. Psychiatrists are a subgroup of medicine and they use the DSM. But the DSM doesnt say anything about possible treatment, and it fully ignores comorbidity.
Dr. Aghajani showed us three cases of young men that showed abnormal behaviour. Case 1 was about Michael (17) who cut off the tail of his family cat and did these kind of things multiple times, because he was interested to see the reaction. Case 2 was about Joost (15), he pushed a toddler into the swimming pool and watched the toddler drown, because he was interested in seeing someone drown. Case 3 was about Dino (22) and he used excessive violence during an assault, because he was apparently provoked by the victim, and he had no feelings of remorse or regret. This last case is more complicated. But not everybody who is provoked has such an excessive reaction. Abnormal behaviour is not categorical, it is spectral and its dynamic.
We will talk about the main predictors for chronic antisocial behaviour, namely conduct disorder and psychopathy.
Conduct disorder
= aggression to people and/or animals, often bullies, intimidates others and is physical cruel to other people or animals. We call it conduct disorder when an individual is below the age of
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18/19, later it is called antisocial behaviour disorder. The symptoms of conduct disorder should be persistent, 6 to 12 months. Around the age of 7/8 the symptoms of conduct disorder really show. Some children grow out of it though, simply because of the maturing of the brain. Youngsters who showcase sub symptoms of psychopathic tendencies next to conduct disorder are even more at risk of showing chronic antisocial behaviour.
Prevalence for this disorder is 7% in the general population, in prison population the percentage of prevalence is way higher. Most often there is comorbidity with ADHD and depression etc. Conduct disorder is an externalizing disorder, so it has a societal, economic and emotional burden for the environment. 30-40% of the youngsters with conduct disorder later still have this disorder and they dont develop out of the symptoms. There is not a real treatment for conduct disorder. You can monitor and provide the parents with parenting skills, but a real proven treatment does not exist.
Psychopathy
= a disorder in the personality, a collection of abnormal personality traits. The distinction between a real psychopath and the tendencies of psychopathy are really different. Personality disorders are not treatable, you cannot change your most negative personality traits. You can train and help someone to recognize some triggers and make them aware of someones emotions and feelings, but its not possible to treat it.
Psychopathy is subdivided in two personality factors and four facets:
Interpersonal/affective
o Interpersonalfacet:superficialcharm,grandiosesenseofself-worth,
pathological lying, conning/manipulative
o Affective facet: lack of remorse or guilt, failure to accept responsibility, lack of
empathy, shallow effect
Chronic antisocial lifestyle
o Lifestyle facet: need for stimulation, parasitic lifestyle, lack of realistic goals,
impulsivity and irresponsibility
o Antisocial facet: poor behavioural controls, early behavioural problems,
juvenile delinquency, criminal versatility
Most real psychopaths are not that smart and are mostly very irresponsible and impulsive. To have a psychopathic personality you should showcase all four facets. If you showcase psychopathic tendencies you just show a few of the facets, but not everything.
Prevalence of psychopathy is 1% in the general population, however in the prison population the prevalence is 30%. The yearly costs of psychopathy (direct and indirect, robbing, lawyers, damage done to society) are 460 billion dollars in the US only. Having someone in the prison is really expensive. These costs are 10 times the costs of depression in the US, while the prevalence of depression in the US really high is.
Psychopathy is often synonymous with extreme violence and serial killings, but not all psychopaths commit violent acts. In fact there are many successful psychopaths. There are different studies that showed that many politicians show some psychopathic tendencies.
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Lecture 2: violence and antisociality
Antisocial brain
People who are antisocial often have a smaller prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Next to that psychopaths process receiving punishment differently than people who are not psychopaths. Psychopathy is not just a behavioural problem. You could say there is an antisocial brain, but there are some drawbacks. It is really hard to treat, there are some ethical issues. And an antisocial brain doesnt mean everything, because behaviour can be changed.
Damage to the prefrontal lobe can damage your character, like in case of Phineas Cage. He changes from a sweet man to an antisocial person.
For chronic anti-social behaviour conduct disorder and psychopathy are the most prominent phenomena.
Neurodevelopmental disorders
Neuro braincell Developmentaldevelopment of new braincells Disordershampers, abnormal
A neurodevelopmental disorder means that there is a disorder in the typical development of the neurobiological system. This can happen in the uterus, during birth, during childhood and during adolescence. Its an interaction of genetic factors and suboptimal environmental factors. Suboptimal environmental factors are:
Stress during pregnancy
Birth complications
Mom or dad with psychopathology
Nutrition
Type of friends
Type of school
Health and exercise
Low SES
Gene and environment interactions
Bio-psycho-social risk CD/psychopathy in youth. There are three options:
Passive gene-environment correlation: child is not actively involved in the setting.
You are destined to experience this. There is a big responsibility by the parents and
their genes and deeds
Active gene-environment correlation: because of the genes the child seeks certain
environments. The child has an active role in finding their own friends etc.
Evocative gene-environment correlation: the genes causes the child to behave in a
certain way that attracts a negative environment. A childs behaviour triggers certain things in parents and/or teachers that have a negative impact of the child.

In that case the child shows negative behaviour because of the genes. Its like a downward spiral.
There are specific interactions per developmental stage.
Genes to brain to behaviour
Genes code for specific proteinsproteins code for single neuronssingle neurons form neuronal populations the group fire together and wire together this forms neuronal systemsneuronal systems shape our behaviour.
So the genes affect behaviour. If at the genetic level or at the environmental level something happens, the end product will be affected.
Neurocognitive model antisociality
We will talk about two different models that try to explain antisociality, namely Amygdala- centred model and paralimbic system dysfunction model.
Amygdala-centred model
This model can explain antisociality in different ways
Amygdala hyporesponsive to negative stimuli when this is below the optimal level your brain doesnt respond in a good way to environmental stimuli. When a girl is looking very scared, a person will normally change their behaviour and put on a brake on that behaviour that is scaring the girl. So in this case it doesnt work like that
Suboptimal amygdala-frontostriatal couplingwhen the amygdala is not communicating well that the frontal and the striatal regions
Deficient affective processing when your amygdala is not working well, the information is not well computed. You cant see what someone elses emotions are. Your attention goes to the wrong stimuli and you cant learn from bad behaviour.
Biased attention and poor associative learning
Precludes learning from mistakes/negative outcomes
Promotes persistent antisocial / maladaptive behaviourthese people process
receiving punishment different and thats why punishing doesnt really work. The punishment needs to happen direct after the negative behaviour. These people are often super sensitive to anything that is rewarding, they are kind of reward obsessed.
Paralimbic system dysfunction model
Extends the IES model they also so abnormalities in the further brain, not only in the amygdala
Goes beyond just the amygdala
More distributed neural anomalies
Reminiscent of alternative neural operations
Compensate for intrinsic/innate affective deficits

Because the amygdala isnt working well, other brain parts are compensating to take part in the society.
Nuzzo (2013) article
From looking at brain scans they could predict whether someone would reoffend. They used the inhibition task to measure brain activity during MRI. People had to do this inhibition task. N was small though and the accuracy was not 100%, but 70%. It shows potential brain research.
The involvement of the amygdala in the role in antisociality first suggested three decades ago. The current understanding is:
Smaller in size
Hyporesponsive to negative affective stimuli
Deprives of regularity corticolimbic interactions
Why should a relatively small structure like the amygdala play such a crucial role in a complex psychological phenomenon, like conduct disorder of psychopathy?
Location and connections: its a hub, like Schiphol. A lot of international and national travellers travel through Schiphol. The amygdala is Schiphol. It receives a ton of information, and it sends a lot of data and information to higher order regions. The amygdala on its own is not really special, but its connections make it important
General salience detector
Part of the primitive brain: its part of the reptilian brain, the basis brain. The more
cognitive developed, the bigger the basil lateral amygdala. The neocortex provides us
with many complex socioemotional functions
Different neuronal populations: the amygdala has different subregions.
Animal morality: some of the chimpanzees wait with eating the grapes until the other chimpanzee also has a grape. Because they do not find it fair if they get a grape and the other not. This feeling of fairness and morality comes from the amygdala.
The problem with comparing group with each other is generalisation. In a lot of cases individual factors are being ignored.
. De oefenexamen moet geschreven zijn in de Engelse taal. Onderin staan de antwoorden. Het aantal vragen dat het oefenexamen moet bevatten is 25.

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