BGZ2024 Food for Life summary of all cases
Extensive summary of al cases with additional comments from the
End of the document: case 6 (which was our presentation about
PROBLEM 1: MACRO AND MICRONUTRIENTS
What nutrients does the body need? Learning goals:
1. What are the macronutrients?
a. Carbohydrates (fibers)
2. What are the micronutrients?
Recommended daily intakes RDA, percentage (Gezondheidsraad, IFSA)
Where to find/different kind of diets (Mediterranean, high fat and high protein)?
Energy content (kcal, joule) connect with the structure
3. What are the recommendations of these nutrients (amount)? And what is the average
consumption at the moment?
4. What type of research do you need to base these recommendations on?
5. What’s a healthy diet? Literature:
IFSA, WHO, gezondheidsraad 1. What are the macronutrients?
Macronutrients: nutrients that deliver calories or energy/fuel to the body. The body
needs these nutrients for growth, its metabolism and other body functions. Macro means
large/big nutrients that the body needs in huge amounts.
1kcal is the amount of energy that wil raise the temp of 1 kg of water by 1 degree
Carbohydrates 4.2 kcal/1 gram of carbohydrates
Fats 9.4 kcal/1 gram of fats
Proteins 4.2 kcal/1 gram of proteins
a. Carbohydrates (including fibers)
Carbohydrates are made of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) and are a
major source of fuel for the body. Dietary carbohydrates are starches and sugars
found in grains, vegetable, legumes (dry beans and peas) and fruits.
The body converts most dietary carbohydrates to glucose, a simple sugar compound.
It is glucose that can be found in the circulation, providing a source of energy for
cells and tissues.
Simple carbohydrates are natural y present as simple sugars in fruit, milk and other
foods. Simple sugars are monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) or
o Mono-saccharides consists of a single sugar molecule. These are any sugars that
aren’t broken down during digestion and these have the general formula
CnHnOn, where n = 3 – 7. Al (glucose, fructose, galactose) have 6 carbons and
the chemical formula formula C6H12O6 but each has a different arrangement
of these atoms.
o Glucose is the most abundant simple carbohydrate unit in nature. Glucose
makes up at least one of the two sugar molecules in every disaccharide. In the
body glucose supplies energy to the cells. The body closely regulates blood
glucose (blood sugar) levels to ensure a constant fuel source for vital body
functions. It is the only fuel used by the brain (except during prolonged
o Disaccharides consist of two sugar molecules chemical y joined together by a
glycosidic bond. This process of chemical y joining is cal ed condensation. These
include sucrose (common table sugar), lactose (milk sugar) and maltose.
Complex carbohydrates are chains of more than two sugar molecules
o Oligosaccharides = short chain carbohydrates containing between 3 and 10
o Polysaccharides = long carbohydrate chains, can contain hundreds or
thousands. 1`11 Some form straight chains whereas others branch off in al
directions. The way monosaccharides are linked makes them digestible (starch)
or non-digestible (fiber).
Starch (‘’zetmeel’’) plants store energy as starch for usage during growth and
reproduction. Sources of starch are grains (wheat, rice, corn and oats), legumes
(peas, beans and lentils) and tubers (potatoes, yams and cassava). In plants, starch
takes two main forms amylose and amyloceptin. - Amylose is made up of long
unbranched chains of glucose molecules. - Amylopectin is made up of branched
chains of glucose molecules. Amylose has lower digestibility than amylopectin, but
amylopectin is more abundant in foods.
Glycogen (‘’animal starch’’) it is the storage form of carbohydrates in living
animals. It is composed of long, highly branched chains of glucose molecules.
Fibers dietary fibers are non-digestible carbohydrates that are intact and intrinsic in
plants. These fibers go intact through our intestinal system and help to remove waste
out of the body.
Characteristics of fibers
-There are soluble (gums, pectins, beta-glucans, psyl ium) and there are insoluble fibers
-Fibers have different functions
Fermentation by intestinal flora yields short-chain fatty acids
-Dietary soluble fiber
o Ensures gel
o Forms a gel in the stomach that slows down the emptying of the stomach and
therefore slows down the glucose intake
indigestible polysaccharides (Mostly in al plant foods)
-Galactose (milksugar) hexoses
-Pentontoses 5 C
-Alcohol sugars absorbed
-Suctrose: glucose + fructose
-Malactose: glucose + glucose
-Lactose: glucose + galactose
Polysacharides: 10 or more:
-Starch: plants amylose (unbranched), amylopectin (branched easy digestive)
-Animal starch glycogen (liver, skeletal muscle)
-Fibers lead to bulk non digestible carbohydrates (partly digestible by distel colon
(lower part) intestinal gut microbiome forming of short chain fatty acids energy
harvesting), long chains
Sources: Potatoes, honey, sugar, rice, bread, beans, fructose (fruit).
Oligosaccharides in dried beans, lentils,
RDA: 40-50% of total calories, physical y active: 60% important to eat high quality
of carbohydrates polysaccharides slower in digestion (release energy slowly).
Insulin needed to build aminoacids to protein muscle tissue. Need carbs and
protein to build muscle
1 gram = 4 kcal (easy structure, easy to digest, you need less oxygen and water
than for example fat easier to digest. First digest carbs then proteins, then fats)
Function: energy, glycogen (quick energy digestion in your mouth)
-Central nervous system only functions with carbohydrates
-Prevents kitosis (fat oxidation ketonbodies: those are acids, ketonacids and
ketonbodies are not the same. Intermediates from TCE cycle, form of glucose for
Proteins are organic compounds made of smal er building blocks named amino
acids. Amino acids contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Body
proteins help build and maintain body structures and regulate body processes.
Protein can also be used for energy.
Amino acids (except proline) uniformly consist of a central carbon atom
chemical y bonded to one hydrogen atom (H), one carboxylic acid group (-
COOH), one amino group (-NH2) and one side group unique to each amino acid
(R). - Dispensable amino acids = AA that the body can make if supplied with
adequate nitrogen. Don’t need to be supplied in the diet. - Conditional y
indispensable amino acids = AA that are normal y made in the body
(dispensable) but become indispensable under certain circumstances (e.g.
critical il ness.)
In the proteins from humans there are 20 different amino acids, in adults 8 of these
amino acids are not formed or are insufficiently formed (essential amino acids).
These have to come in through food.
The 8 essential amino acids are: valine, osileucine, leucine, phenylalanine,
threonine, tryptophan, methionine and lysine. The other not-essential amino acids
can be formed in the liver out of other amino acids.
Amino acids link in a specific sequence to form strand of protein (peptides) up to
100’s of amino acids long. A peptide-bond links amino acids into a protein. To
form a peptide bond, the carboxyl (COOH) group of one amino acids bonds to
the amino (-NH) group of another. In this process water (H2O) is released.
Oligopeptide = chain of 4 to 10 amino acids Polypeptide = chain of more than
10 amino acids.
Complete protein contains all the essential amino acids.
Incomplete protein = contains a few of the essential amino acids. Lack one or
Functions of body proteins: The human body contains 1000’s of different proteins,
each with a specific function determined by its unique shape.
1.2 Formation of acetyl co-enzyme A
1.3 Krebs cycle
1.5 Oxidative phosphorylation
Which factors influence validity and precision of the biomarkers?
Impaired lipid metabolism in obese individuals
1.6 Very-low-fat diets (VLF)
1.6.1 General characteristics
1.6.3 Concerns and safety considerations
1.7 Low-fat diets (LF diet)
1.7.1 General characteristics
1.7.3 Concerns and safety considerations
1.7.4 Impact on the body
1.8 Moderate-fat diets (MF)
1.8.1 General characteristics
1.8.3 Concerns and safety considerations
1.9 Low-carbohydrate diets (LC)
1.9.1 General characteristics
1.9.3 Concerns and safety considerations
1.9.4 Impact on body
1.10 Low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet
1.10.1 Obesity and diabetes
1.10.2 Cardiovascular disease
1.11 High-fat, low-carbohydrate diet
1.11.1 Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease