Robbery: Different roles for the different robbers, but they are all liable for the robbery
but in diff ways, this depends on their role in the robbery, for example getaway driver,
killer, accessory, one that takes money from the teller etc.
Self-defence: is not a defence in every case it depends on the circumstances.
Conduct crime: crimes defined in terms of harmful conduct. Harmful results are not
required. Fe. Being in a country without a Visa.
Result crime: an offense may be defined in terms of a prohibited result. CL murder is a
result crime, because the social harm of the offense, as defined, involves “the death of
another human being.” It does not matter how the result occurred (conduct), just that it
did occur (result). Fe. Causing death by dangerous driving.
Whether a crime is conducted is sometimes not dependent on the results which ensue.
What is consent, and when does it not happen. Consent is the capacity of an indv to say
yes or no in a right state of mind.
An action or omission that constitutes an offence that may be prosecuted by the
State and is punishable by law.
An action or an instance that is deemed injurious to the public welfare or morals
or to the interest of the state and that is legally prohibited.
An illegal activity or serious wrongdoing.
Criminal law def:
Criminal law involves prosecution of a person for an act that has been classified
as a crime or offence.
Criminal Law (Criminal Justice) - Criminal law is the body of law (statutes/
regulations/rules) that relates to crime. It includes the punishment regime for
people who violate criminal laws.
It is a component of the Rule of Law.
rule of law:
criminal law is a part of the rule of law so is admin law.
The rule of law is "The authority and influence of law in society, especially when
viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the
principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are
considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes". The
phrase "the rule of law" refers to a political situation, not to any specific legal rule.
Criminal law is a body of rules which are designed to control human behaviors
which might be threaten, harm, or endanger the property, health, safety or moral
welfare of others in society.
“Criminal justice structures reflect the nature and culture of politics in their
societies.” (Per Dammer)
The Rule of Law (and criminal justice) stem from a “Social Contract” – Human
beings forfeit certain rights in order to benefit from the protection of the State.
One of the cornerstones of a democratic society, meaning that everyone is
subject to the law;
Intended to be a safeguard against arbitrary governance, so governmental
authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly
disclosed laws that are adopted and enforced in accordance with established
No indv. Is above the law and everyone must answer to it
The three essential characteristics of modern constitutionalism are: limiting the powers
of government, adherence to the rule of law, and protection of fundamental rights.
principle of legality:
The principle of legality is often expressed in the following latin phrases: nullum
crimen sine lege, nulla poena sine lege (no crime without law, no penalty without
The principle of legality is a rule of statutory interpretation: if Parliament intends
to interfere with fundamental rights or principles, or to depart from the general
system of law, then it must express that intention by clear and unambiguous
Fundamental rule of criminal law that nothing is a crime unless it is clearly
forbidden in law.
Legal ideal that requires all law to be clear, ascertainable and non-retrospective.
It requires decision makers to resolve disputes by applying legal rules that have
been declared beforehand and not to alter the legal situation retroactively.
In criminal law it can be seen in the general prohibition on the imposition of
criminal sanctions for acts or omissions that were not criminal at the time of their
commission or omission.
acts that can be seen as criminal:
An act that is harmful
An illegal activity
Acts that are against the criminal law of a country
An act that is morally wrong
Actions that hurt other people or damage property
squatting in an abandon building
tweeting your “blowing the airport sky high”
sending a picture of yourself naked to a friend on your mobile
inciting violence on Facebook
Modern crimes: Cyber-crime, human trafficking/modern slavery, promoting hate,
stalking or criminal harassment