Samenvatting The Thames and Hudson
Introduction to Art
The ten elements of art:
The optical effect caused when reflected white light of the spectrum
into separate wavelengths.
An object that can be defined in three-dimensions.
A mark, or implied mark, between two endpoints.
A volume that has, or gives the illusion of having, weight, density and
The two-dimensional area that boundaries of which are defined by
lines or suggested by changes in colour or value.
The distance between identifiable points or planes.
The surface quality of a work, for example fine/coarse,
detailed/lacking in detail.
Time and Motion:
Time is something created by humans; the indefinite continued
progress of existence and events in the past, present, and future
regarded as a whole and motion is the effect of changing placement in
The lightness or darkness of a plane area.
The space filled or enclosed by a three-dimensional figure or object.
The ten principles of art:
Form or composition, noting differences between the two halves we
are looking at. The visual weight has a reasonable counterweight on
A drastic difference between such elements as colour or value.
The principle of drawing attention to a particular content in a work.
The centre of interest or activity in a work of art, often drawing the
viewer’s attention to the most important element.
An arrangement of predictably repeated elements.
The relationship in size between a work’s individual parts and the
The regular or ordered repetition of elements in the work.
The size of an object or artwork in relation to another object or
artwork, or to a system of measurement.
The imposition of order and harmony on a design.
The diversity of different ideas, media and elements in work.
1.1 Art in two Dimensions: Line, Shape and the Principle of Contrast
The basic vocabulary of art — line, form, shape, volume, mass, colour,
texture, space, time and motion, and value.
The ‘grammar’ applied to the elements of art — contrast, emphasis, focal
point, pattern, proportion, rhythm, scale, unity and variety.
The outermost line of an object or figure, by which it is defined or bounded.
A flat surface.
A characteristic way in which an artist or a group of artists use visual
language to give a work an identifiable form of visual expression.
A continuous, uninterrupted line.
A line not actually drawn but suggested by elements in the work.
A shape defined by its surroundings empty space.
An empty space given shape by its surroundings. Like the space between
the E and x in FedEx.
Definition and Functions of Line
Lines are the basics and the beginnings of an artwork. They define the outline of a shape. A line
can be a mark that connects two points. Artist can use lines to define the boundaries between
planes in a two-dimensional work of art. In two-dimensional art, line can also define shapes. A line
may direct our eyes to look at something the artist particularity wants us to notice. Line can also
convey a sense of movement and energy. Line is a tool for describing, in a simple way and in two
dimensions, the boundaries and edges of three-dimensional surfaces. Line can be used to
emphasize surface information that perhaps we overlook at first glance.
Lines to Regulate and Control
The variety of different lines is infinite. Whether straight or curved, a line can be regular and
carefully measured. Regular lines express control and planning and impart a sense of cool-headed
deliberation and accuracy. These lines are effective for communication. Diagonal movement of line
and hectic crossing/overlapping of lines can impart a sense of motion/movement.
Lines to Express Freedom and Passion
Lines can also be irregular, reflecting the wildness of nature, chaos and accident. Such lines seem
passionate and full of feelings otherwise to express. Some artists decide to use irregular lines to
reflect their drawing and thinking process.
Regular and Irregular Lines
Although line can be regular and irregular, most art exhibits a
combination of both.
We have actual lines and implied lines. An implied line gives us the
impression we are seeing a line when there is no continuous mark.
An artist can use line to direct our attention to something he or she wants us to notice.
A contour is the outer edge or profile of an object. Contour lines can suggest a volume in space by
giving us clues about the changing character of a surface.
The directions of lines guide our attention and suggest particular feelings. Vertical lines tend to
communicate strength and energy; horizontal lines can suggest calmness and passivity; diagonal
lines are associated with action, motion and change.
Graphic designers use the communicative qualities of directional line when creating logos.
To convey the strength of government or the stability of a financial institution, they may choose
verticals. Logos for holiday resorts often have horizontal lines.